Commentary on rainfall probabilities based on 'phases' of the SOI
The monthly value of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) was +2.6 for October and +0.6 for November. According to the SOI Phase system, the SOI is in a ‘Consistently Near-Zero’ phase
A map showing the probability of exceeding median rainfall for the next three-month period (December to February) based on a ‘Consistently Near-Zero’ phase of the SOI over October and November is available. This map is based on previous years from 1889 to 2015 which, like 2018, had a ‘Consistently Near-Zero’ phase of the SOI for November (i.e. 1890, 1891, 1895, 1898, 1902, 1903, 1907, 1920, 1926, 1927, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1937, 1945, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1958, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1983, 1985, 1987, 1990, 1995, 1996, 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2012). This map indicates a 40 to 60 per cent probability of exceeding median December to February rainfall for most of Queensland.
When using a climate outlook it should be remembered that the probability, or per cent chance, of something occurring is just that – a probability. For example, if there is a 70 per cent probability of exceeding median rainfall, then there is also a 30 per cent probability of below-median rainfall. It does not mean that rainfall will be 70 per cent more than the median.
Furthermore, while climate outlook schemes cannot provide outlooks with absolute certainty, users who follow a skilful scheme should benefit from doing so in the long-term. Thus, users should consider the historical track record of any scheme, and such information is becoming increasingly available.
The Department of Environment and Science (DES) provides outlooks for the summer period (November to March). The outlooks for summer rainfall are based on conditions leading up to summer, including the state of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and factors which alter the impact of ENSO on Queensland rainfall (i.e. the more slowly changing extra-tropical sea-surface temperature pattern in the Pacific Ocean). The DES Monthly Climate Statement for December 2018 is now available.